The temperature of the atmosphere varies according to the zones and the time, and although extreme temperatures have been measured -60 ° C and 55 ° C, the temperature of the atmosphere ranges from -15 ° C to 30 ° C in the hemispheres and 18 ° C and 44 ° C in the tropics. Temperatures that make possible the existence of organic life on Earth, temperatures that allow us to live.
The critical temperatures of the human body are; average temperature 37, maximum fatal temperature 42ºc, minimum deadly temperature 31ºC.
Comfort temperature; 21.5ºC in summer, 23.5ºC in winter, for a relaxing activity.
The temperature for biological cultures is 37 ° C.
The lowest temperature achieved on the Earth's surface is almost -273 ° C.
The temperature inside the earth's crust increases by about 2.5ºC per hundred meters deep.
The temperature in the galleries and caves oscillate between 15º and 20ºC of the entrance at 50ºC of the deeper mines.
There is no doubt that the energy that keeps the surface of the Earth warm is from the Sun. By day, when it receives the rays of the Sun, the atmosphere is heated to lose the heat at night.
The energy that keeps the earth's crust warm, the interior, several meters deep, comes from the interior of the Earth.
Water as a temperature moderator
Water is the main moderator of terrestrial temperature.
In the dry places of the planet, the temperature variations between day and night get to surpass 40ºC of difference.
The data on the atmosphere are with reference to sea level.
Water is the major component of the surface of the planet Earth. It is also the major component of our body.
The water has some peculiar properties, some of the properties have cataloged them of anomalous properties, that favor the existence of the life, these properties are:
Water has a high caloric value, it absorbs, and then yields, much heat.
Water in the liquid state does not change its volume however much it is compressed.
However, water does dilate, and when the temperature of the water in an enclosed, airless container changes, as the water does not compress, the water pressure will rise until the container is broken.
Hot water boilers and heaters need a "container" filled with air that absorbs water dilatations. Pressure valves are placed to prevent water expansion from damaging the facilities.
The water has its maximum density at a value close to 4ºC. This makes the water heavier, the bottom water is 4 ° C.
Solid water, ice, is less heavy than water in liquid state, so ice floats and becomes insulation that protects the water below. Beneath the layer of solid water, ice, is the liquid water full of life.
If the temperature drops too much, the surface is frozen and the layer of ice increases, the insulating layer that protects the water from the bottom increases.
This peculiarity, anomalous, in the coefficient of expansion of the water, allows the life in the bottoms of rivers, lakes and of the seas in the poles.
The temperature of the sea water oscillates between -3ºC and 22ºC, this makes us see the great power regulator of temperature which produces the existence of water.
Without the protection of the atmosphere, as it happens on the Moon, the temperatures between day and night oscillate between 120ºC overday at -150 ° C overnight, values of temperature that do not allow the existence of organic life, at least of the organic life that we know.
The atmosphere, especially the water, is a great moderator of temperature.
Water allows life on our planet, on its entire surface, including rivers, lakes, seas, beneath the poles and even in the abyssal depths, even where the rays of the sun do not reach. The important thing is the temperature and keep its values constant.
POTENTIAL ENERGY, LATENT ENERGY, ACCUMULATED ENERGY, ETC.
The energy that allows life on the surface of the Earth, comes from the Sun, from the rays of energy that the Sun sends us and warms our ambience.
That energy is found, stored, accumulated, transformed and when manifested in endless ways that allow us to see at night or to us warm when it is cold.
Also, these accumulated energies can do us harm when they to produce in great quantity and in an uncontrolled way.
The sun warms our atmosphere, which is gaseous, the air of the atmosphere.
The hot air expands and rises, leaving a vacuum that comes to occupy another cooler air, thus generating a KINETIC ENERGY or energy of movement.
POTENTIAL ENERGY AND LATENT ENERGY
The Sun warms the surface of the sea water and heats the air that is in contact with the water. The water evaporates and rises, then this water vapor cools in the upper layers of the atmosphere, becomes water that precipitates as rain on the mountains.
This water from the rivers accumulates in the marshes and from it is obtained energy, this energy is POTENTIAL ENERGY, latent energy in the masses that are attracted by the gravity of the Earth.
Sunlight allows the photosynthesis of biological organisms, then this energy absorbed by biological organisms can be to take advantaged of in different ways, the most spectacular is the energy by combustion, burn wood.
The atoms join together to form an infinity of different material elements.
In the union of the atoms to form molecules intervenes great amounts of energy, CHEMICAL ENERGY.
We know it as chemical reactions.
These may be simple reactions, complex reactions, slow reactions, rapid reactions, but in all of them there is a transformation of the atomic structures with ENERGY.
The energy of the Sun, and that of Earth in the Earth's crust, intervenes in these chemical reactions.
The lowest energy level on Earth's surface is -275°C or 0°K
The energy level of the freezing point of the water is 0ºC.
The inner energy level of the human body is 37.4°C.
The energy level of solar emission is between 4,500ºC and 6,000ºC.
The level of vision of the human eye is in emissions produced by temperatures ranging between 1,800ºK to 16,000ºK.
The chemical energies have, each reaction, its determined energetic level.